Study the evolution of international environmental law
International environmental law is a set of rules and regulations of international law governing the relations between followers and actors of international law including governmental and non-governmental laws in order to protect environment as well as it is an emerging field whose turning point was Stockholm Conference in 1972. Since then, this field has undergone many changes and lawyers have divided the path evolution into three stages: the 1972 conference, the 1992 Rio Conference and the Rio + 20 Conference; these developments are mainly focused on issues such as development of preventive measures, extend the guarantees of governments’ environmental commitments, adjust governments will and curtail national sovereignty principle. However, the process has faced obstacles and limitations such as lack of financial resources, environmental issues and national preferences and governance. Strong and efficient international institutions should be established that have necessary competence and ability in advancing environmental objectives in order to accelerate this process.
Ameri Sahoi, H. R. (2008). Human Resource in United Nations documents, Tehran, Majd Scientific and Cultural Organization.
Amir Arjmand, A. (2016). United Nations Conference on the Conservation of Two-Thin Fish and Offshore Fish and the 1995 New York Convention, Tehran, Journal of Legal Research, Nos. 17 and 16.
Baidinezhad, H. (2005). Evolution in structure of United Nations system, Tehran, Office of Political and International Studies.
Baslar, k. (1998). The concept of the common Heritage of Mankind in International Law, Netherland, Martinus Nijhoff publishers.
Berhartdt, R. (1981). Encyclopedia of Public International Law, London, Vol. 2.
Bigdeli, M. R. (2008). International Law, Tehran, Ganj Danesh Publications.
Churchill, R., Leo, A. (2008). International Law of the Sea, translation of Mr. Aghaei, Tehran, Ganj Danesh.
Gillroy, J.M .(2006) Adjudication Norms, Dispute Settlement Regimes and International Tribunals, Stanford Journal of International Law.
Halami, N. (2006). International Government Responsibility, Tehran, Journal of Law and Policy Research, Eighth, No. 18.
Harris, D.J. (1993). Cases and Materials on International Law, London, sweet and Maxwell, Fifth edition.
Karimi, Mahmoud, N.M. (1992). Objectives of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and Formulation of Strategies and Adjustment Treaties, Tehran, Foreign Policy Magazine.
Kasse, A. (1991). International Law in the Unlimited World, Translated by Morteza Kalantariyan, Tehran, Office of International Law Services of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Kiss, A. (2005). the legal ordering of environmental protection, London, sweet and Maxwell.
Kiss, A. (2007). Environmental Law, Translated by Mohammad Hassan Habibi, Volume 3, Tehran, Tehran University Press.
Knox, J. (2002). the myth and Reality of the Transboundary. Environmental Impact Assessment London, vol. 96.No.2.
Kurokolasariya, L. (2011). International Environmental Law, Translated by Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi Hosseini, Tehran, Publication.
Lavasani, A. (1993). International Conference on Environment in Rio, Tehran, Bureau of Political and International Studies of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Mosler, H. (1984). International legal community, London, Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Vol.7.
Mousavi, S.F. (2006). the Development of International Law Resources for Environment, Tehran, Publication.
Murphy, D. (2013). Evaluation of the international liability regime for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Poorashhemi, S. A. (2010). Laws and Regulations on Citizenship Rights, Tehran, Vice President of Legal Affairs.
Sa'ad Vakil, A. (2009). the Status of the Healthy Environment in Normative Framework of International Human Rights, Tehran, Khorsandi Publication.
Sand, H. P. (1993). International Environmental Law after Rio, London, European Journal of International Law, Vol4. No.1
Sands, P.h., (1994). Principles of International Environmental Law, Manchester, Manchester University Press.
Simbir, R. (2004). Human Rights in context of the environment, Tehran, Political and Economic Information Monthly, No. 202-201.
Smith, B, D. (1988). State Responsibility and Marine Environment, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Zamani, S. Q. (2012). Development of International Responsibility in Light of International Environmental Law, Tehran, Journal of Legal Research, Year 1, No. 1.
Zamani, S. Q., Shahbazi, R. (2010). International Law end: The Fluctuation between Technique and Constraint, Tehran, Institute for Legal Studies and Research of Shahre Danesh.